Mathematics of Structure was published by AJAR Publishing in 2003 as a soft-cover book. It is out of print but a new edition is planned.

There is no index to the book Mathematics of Structure. Existing copies use *Societal Systems* page numbers; readers must use the index from Societal Systems. Warfield was careful to retain identical page numbering in both books, so this is not too much of a problem.

The math chapters from *Societal Systems* had been used often in Warfield's classes, principally in his Mathematics of Modeling short courses, but elsewhere as well. For a long time he used photocopies of his 1976 Wiley publication for classroom handouts. "Mathematics of Modeling" was the title Warfield used for these classes in the early nineties. Later he changed the name to "Mathematics of Structure" because he decided the first title was too presumptive and too general. “The Mathematics of Structure” became the title he used for the 1997 unpublished report and for classes and workshops given since.

As years went by he planned to eventually write a book exclusively about the ISM mathematics. In the meantime, while he was busy teaching and working, making an exact typed transcript into WordPerfect of the format used in *Societal Systems* was his solution for keeping math formulas in the correct position on the pages while getting the information into digitized and printable form as soon as possible. Warfield's secretary, Sandra McDowell, did some of the typing, copying from *Societal Systems*, in 1994. Rose Warfield tried to do more in 1995 and 1996 but the math notations and format style were not easy using WordPerfect 5.

Because of Sandra & Rose’s secretarial errors Warfield had to retype nearly all of the text himself. He finished the WordPerfect reproduction of Chapters 8, 9 and 10 in 1997, in time for use in some courses he taught in Mexico. These chapters were also printed and distributed as an unpublished monograph titled “Mathematics of Structure” (1997). When he retired to Florida in the year 2000 Chapters 11,12,13 and 14 were still on Warfield's computer, as an imperfect secretary's copy. In Florida, Warfield edited and retyped them, one by one with much labor, still using WordPerfect, until the seven chapters of *Mathematics of Structure* were completed in November 2002.

An index for *Mathematics of Structure* would have been nice but there was always the possibility that time might be running out. Warfield didn't want to delay publication any longer. He had reached his major goal which was to identify and isolate this information from its original seclusion in *SOCIETAL SYSTEMS*, where many read it but did not follow it because they were interested in other parts of the larger book. Warfield finished the book manuscript on 11 November 2002, ten days before his 77th birthday.

He printed out the WordPerfect pages from his home computer and took them to Sir Speedy Printers in Largo, Florida. Jerry Sheaffer, the manager of Sir Speedy, wanted to print a high quality computer generated print job. He suggested Warfield put the book into PageMaker or similar software, but Warfield said no, he was just worn out - it was just too hard with such a complicated text, to learn and operate any new software. Instead Warfield wanted to do the essential thing, to get the mathematics into the hands of the very few people who could use it and understand it RIGHT NOW - in the hope that its subject matter might become timely and useful through their efforts. So Jerry Sheaffer designed a front and back cover for the volume, and did photocopies of all Warfield's WordPerfect pages, rather than digital printing. Jerry had the book ready by February 2003, which is the true publication date. A COPYRIGHT DATE of 2002 appears on the verso page of the printed book. (Copyright was applied for using the date 2002. However the U.S. Copyright office rejected the application, because the book was viewed to be a reprint of previously published material)

The AJAR version has an ISBN: 0-9716962-2-5, and is listed in Books In Print and on this website. Videotapes of Warfield at work teaching the Mathematics of Structure courses are in Special Collections and Archives at Fenwick Library on George Mason University campus in Fairfax, Virginia.

Warfield found typos in the book after publication, and issued an ERRATA sheet in February 2003, a copy of which is on Rose's computer. There is also a book review titled "Graph Theory, Mathematical Modeling & Interdisciplinarity" written by Paul Bugl, which can be found in Warfield Special Collections, Box 81 Folder 2.

Warfield's comments about the math chapters in *Societal Systems* apply also to *Mathematics of Structure*, this from an email to an Iranian student named Mahmood Zanjirchi, in 2006: "In order to explain what you are seeking, I had to develop several chapters of material, including what is known as discrete mathematics. I assume that you are probably familiar with much of this, but ISM requires that several branches be integrated with common notation, and that is what I did in the book before proceeding with the development of ISM."